Willis (1973) classified Garcinia kola (Heckel) taxonomically as  follows:-
Kingdom : plant ordor . Guttiferales.
Family: Guttiferales . sub -family clusiudeae
Tribe: Garcinieae: Garcinia
Species: Kola
Botanical name:  Garcinia Kola (Heckel)
Common name: Bitter Kola
Local name:
Igbo : Agbi-ilu, Aki-ilu
Yoruba: Orobo
Ibibio: Efiat
Bini: Edun
Hausa: Namijin gor
          The seeds  of several  plants have been used either  wholly as a substitute  for, or as adulterants of, true kola. All of these, however,  lack  the characteristic principles of the true kola. Among these plants is  Garinia Kola (Heckel). The fruit of this plant is rarely found as an adulterant  of kola, as their external features are entirely different. However, it  bears the name of  false kola, male kola, and bitter kola. It is highly esteemed by the native of Africa, though devoid of marked stimulant properties of true kola.  Negroes chewed  it as a powerful aphrodisiac and, as masticatory, they  employ them in common colds.   They contain tannin,  colour matter, and a brown and a yellowish- white resin but  no alkaloids (Harvey Wickes, 1898).
           The flowers of Garcinia  kola are greenish white,  with reddish  hair on both the sepals  and petals. The flowers have very short stalk,  while its ovaries are   hairy and the stigmas are four lobed. The fruits  is reddish-yellow, about  6.25cm in diameter, and each  fruit  contains two to four brown seeds embedded  in orange- coloured pulp  (Atilad Akanmu 1997 pg 121). Garinia  species  is a wide forest tree, height varies considerable but can grow up to 30m.
          Garcinia  kola is endemic in the humid   lowland  rainforest vegetation of the west and central  African subregions. It is found in coastal  areas and lowland plains up to 300m above sea level with an average of 2, 500mm of rainfall per annum. The trees  are abundant in  densely  populated areas of   natural  and secondary forests where the predominant land use system is tree crop plantation farming  (Aiyelagbe and Adeola 1993). Temperature ranges from 32.150C to 21.40C and a minimum relative humidity of 76.343% (Atilad Akanmu 1997 pg 117).
          An important and ancient  trade product, the nuts of Garcinia  kola are  available in markets throughout west and  central  Africa, from Senega town in Sierra Leone to South-West Cameroon (Atilad Akanmu 1997 pg 116). In Nigeria, its trade is as important as that of kolanut in major towns and cities in the Southern parts of the country,  where the tree is endemic. It is favoured by the three major  ethnic groups in Nigeria, the yorubas, Igbos and Hausas. Its domestic trade  thus extends beyond the Southern production areas  to the Northern parts of the country.
          There is long gestation period before flowering and fruiting. However, many of the germinating  difficulties have been overcome by methods developed by  (Okafor 1998, Atilad Akanmu 1997 pg 121), and interest is developing  to cultivate  the tree species in  plantations. CULTIVATION
          They require temperature range from 32.150C to 21.40C and a minimum relative humidity of 76.34% (Atilad Akanmu 1997 pg 117). The seed is raise in nurseries. Fruiting in the tree commences in July and ends in October. HARVESTING
          Fruit harvest continues  intermittently as ripe fruit fall and are then collected  for the  extraction of seeds.
          When ripe, the green pericarp  turns  to a reddish yellow colour,  and the fruit falls  from the tree. The fruit  are collected and kept in  an open, cool  place till the pericarp and the pulpy musocarp  become soft. Once  softened,  the fruits are threshed  to released the nuts, which are thoroughly washed to remove sticky mucilaginous material  that sheaths  the nut. Nuts that are not sold fresh are then spread out and air- dried in preparation for storage,  which is  provided by wrapping the nuts in leaves and  storing them in a basket  lined with jute bag materials.  This process is repeated as fruits  ripens and is collected  throughout the harvesting period.
          The constituents of Garcinia kola include: biflavonoids xanthones and benzophenones. The  antimicrobial  properties of this
plant are attributed  to the  benzophenone, flavanones  (Iwu, 1993). Dimethylamine,  methylamine, ethylamine  and  Isopentylamine   in three  varieties  of kola nut,  cola  acuminates, C. nitida and  Garcinia cola (Atawodi; 1995) , Lipid composition  of  the seeds of Garcinia Kola, Chrysophyllum albidum, and Dennettia tripelattia range from 32-69 gm/kg (Akintonwa A, and A.R. Essien, 1995). The biflavanones GB1, GB2 and  kolaflavanone  were isolated as the active constituents (Iwu 1985).
          Medicinal uses of Garcinia kola, include purgative, antiparasitic, antimicrobal . The seeds are used in the treatment of  bronchitis and throat infections. They are also  used to prevent  and relieve colic, cure head or chest colds and relieve cough. Also the  plant is  used for the  treatment of liver disorders and as a  chewing   stick (Iwu 1993). Studies show very  good antmicrobial  and antiviral  properties.
           In addition, the plant possesses antidiabetic; and  antihepatotoxic activities (Iwe 1993).
          Garcinia kola seeds are considered a poison antidote in Africa. Kolaviron  at 100mg/kg orally reduced thiopental- induced sleep in CCL4- poisoned  rats and protected microsomal  enzymes against phalloodin  (Iwu 1987). Paracetamol- induced hepatotoxicity in rats  was reduced  by Garcinia  kola  seed extract. Protection might be due  to inhibiting P-450 activation of the toxin (Akintonwa 1990). Blood sugar was lowered  from 115mg/dL to 65mg/dL by Kolaviron, a mixture of C-3/C-8 linked biflavonoids obtained from Garcinia  kola,  at 100mg/kg in rabbits. It also inhibited rate lens aldose reductase IC50 =5.4 x10(-6) (Iwu 1990). Lipid peroxidation of rat  liver was inhibited by G.Kola  in a dose  dependent manner; possibly due to isoflavones (Adegoke, 1998).